《台灣社會研究季刊》 第109期:

22

【專題論文】左翼不進步
專題導言/丁乃非、林建廷、黃道明(109 民107.4 1-4

等待醫治的斷指:冷戰自由人文主義的國/種族殘缺敘事/林建廷(109 107.4 5-35

面對後冷戰社會主義的不斷消解,以及當下各式右翼民粹主義運動萌發,大量以民族國家為首的民主化運動重整之歷史時刻,有越來越多的文獻重新探討冷戰自由主義,尤其關於自由、民主與人文主義等進步話語,如何構築美國帝國主義的跨太平洋歷史形構,並影響後殖民亞洲國家的民主化歷程。將吳念真1996年的電影《太平天國》中關於1960年代冷戰台灣的再探,視為冷戰現代性歷史敘事的一環,本文一併回顧國際科學人文主義的冷戰系譜,試圖深化冷戰敘事中關於醫學現代性與軍事主義的問題意識詰問,同時探究後冷戰文化生產中的自由人文主義想像,並重新問題化此一新殖民主義的歷史延續與斷裂。透過分析電影敘事呈現的有關美國在亞洲的軍事佈局,以及故事主人翁對於美國現代醫學與科技的想像,一方面詰問台灣解嚴民主化與醫療現代化過程中軍事帝國主義的文化重構, 也分析後冷戰文化批判當中的人文主義想像,如何挪用並置換了殘疾與種族的議題,並論證這個置換的過程正是台灣與美國現代性權力共構一個種族化的展現,也是理解美國跨太平洋新殖民權力關係部署與後殖民亞洲國家的國族主義發展一個重要的視角。

關鍵詞:軍事主義、科學人文主義、冷戰自由主義、醫療現代性、種族、殘疾

At the current historical moment as witnessed by the rise of right-wing populism in various nationalist movements in the name of democratization across the globe, a number of critical scholarship has called for a reevaluation of the historical formations of Cold War liberalism in transpacific contexts. Considering Wu Nien-Jen’s film, Buddha Bless America (1996), as an integrated part of the Cold War historical narratives, this paper looks at how this cultural text renders visible the Cold War problematics about the dual process of militarization and medicalization articulated through liberal categories of freedom, democracy and scientic progress. To read this film as presenting the Taiwan Cold War history under the transnational genealogies of scientific humanism, this paper further explores how this Post-Cold War liberal cultural critique rehearses some familiar language of liberalism itself in a series of displacements of race and disability in the mutual constitutions of US-Taiwan modernities. The critical view of the continuous racialized displacements in this colonial-imperialist nexus of power is much needed for imagining a “third world” de-colonializing project.

Keywords: militarism, scientific humanism, Cold War liberalism, medical modernity, race, disability

狐狸的叫聲:左派「進步」話語政治中的路翎創作 /宋玉雯(109 107.4 37-72

路翎(1923-1994),四十年代「國統區」代表性作家,主要以小說揚名載入文學史冊,著重描寫人物「異樣」的內心世界。1955年因「胡風反革命集團案」入獄,關押期間身心崩解。八十年代初以詩作「復出」,受到肯定的同時也經常被指為「美化現實」,晚年累計約五百五十萬字的十餘部中、長篇小說則無處發表,少數讀過部分內容的研究者多半表示只是重複毛時代的教條,「一生兩世」,昔日的天才作家如今只能一再覆誦語境相似的過時頌歌。本文嘗試對詩人與詩的「落後」提出不同看法。「傷痕文學」當令的年代,路翎繼續說述社會主義理想,在「不信」的時代主調中表述「相信」,在紛紛「控訴」的巨大聲量中如此節制。這樣一個遭際「酷烈」的創作者,本有雄厚的「政治受難資本」供其言詮,但路翎拒絕戲劇化的陳述,不以個人苦難作為重回文學道路的通行證,在他節制有度乃至時現漠然的敘述姿態裡,呈現出另種「倖存者」的身分意識。我認為路翎並非不述說苦難,也非美化苦難,而是盡其所能地選擇了另種呈現苦難迎對生活的敘述。

關鍵詞:路翎、現實主義、革命、傷痕文學、苦難敘述、落後、左翼文學

As a representative writer of the “Kuomintang District” in the 1940s, Lu Ling (1923-1994) is renowned in Chinese literary history for his novels that focus on the “strange” interior of his characters. While imprisoned in 1955 due to the case of “Hu Feng Counterrevolutionary Clique,” he had a nervous breakdown. In the 1980s, Lu Ling “returned” with his poetry, which was well received but also considered as “embellishing the reality.” The novellas and novels written in his later years could not find a means to publishing. According to few critics who have read parts of those unpublished works, they simply repeat the orthodoxies of Mao’s era. It’s declared that the once talented writer was now reduced to repeating again and again those obsolete eulogies in a similar context. This essay attempts to provide a different perspective on the “backwardness” of the poet Lu Ling and his poems. When the “Scar Literature” was in season, Lu Ling kept articulating socialist ideals—he enunciated “belief ” in the epochal tune of “disbelief,” and remained reserved within the roar of “accusation.” A writer who had experienced such “brutality,” in his own right, would have been able to capitalize the rich “political suffering” for speech and interpretation. Lu Ling nevertheless refused making dramatic statements or appropriating one’s own misery as a warrant for returning to the path of literature. In his reserved—and at times disinterested—posture of narration, Lu Ling demonstrated an identity consciousness as an alternative “survivor.” Hence I argue that Lu Ling neither verbalized nor embellished suffering; rather, he strived for an alternative narrative to reveal suffering and confront life.

Keywords: Lu Ling, realism, revolution, scar literature, narratives of suffering, backwardness, leftist literature

「盡忠追尋過去,大步走向醉生夢死,期待重生」:田啟元的愛滋生命與左翼酷兒劇場初探 /黃道明(109 107.4 73-116

因愛滋病逝的劇場鬼才導演田啟元(1964-1996),於1988年與詹慧玲等人成立「臨界點劇象錄」、擔任該劇團藝術總監,近十年的劇場生涯裡共創作、編導了25齣戲,咸認是台灣八○、九○年代小劇場運動的核心人物。田啟元的劇作因衝撞黨國威權體制、挑戰「性」的文化禁忌而廣被視為「前衛」,然而在冷戰分斷體制的持續作用下,他鮮明的左翼反帝旗幟及其蘊含的性/別政治眼界,迄今未被本地學界及同志運動所正視。本文為田啟元的左翼酷兒劇場初探,企圖透過劇作分析、手稿及臨界點前團員訪談,勾勒田啟元的愛滋生命與社會實踐, 看他如何在解嚴時刻的歷史當下,以接合「性」與政經批判的史詩劇場介入冷戰國族文化,繼而審視他如何處理婚家體制裡的慾望矛盾、直剖愛滋污名根源。本文將揭示,田啟元不但提出一種批判正典菁英主體養成及冷戰失語精神狀態的異端政治,同時也藉由文化傳統及民俗的再造,反思現代性規範的撕裂暴力,從而在中國文化基體裡提出一套有別於當下新自由主義多元修辭、接納異質性的生命倫理。在亞際文化研究置疑西方現代性的普世暴力、去西方知識殖民之際,田啟元劇場的抗殖左翼政略及倫理探尋為我們提供了許多彌足珍貴的在地思考資源,對眼下的性/別文化研究有著重要的提示作用。

關鍵詞:田啟元、小劇場、冷戰分斷、愛滋、性/別、酷兒、去殖民

Taiwanese playwright and director Tien Chi-yuan (1964-1996) was a key figure in the Little Theatre Movement, which emerged in response to rapid political liberalization in the post-Martial Law era. Tien co-founded the Critical Point Theatre Phenomenon Troupe in 1988 and went on to produce over twenty plays before dying of AIDS in 1996 at the age of thirty-two. Openly challenging the party-state regime and broaching the cultural reticence around the subject of sex, Tien’s theatre is widely regarded as ‘avant-garde’, yet, due to the ongoing effects of Cold War division, this label has to date failed to truly reflect the blatant anti-imperialist, socialist thrusts in his major plays. This essay makes a preliminary attempt to carve out Tien’s theatre of the queer left. Through reading Tien’s plays, manuscripts, as well as interviewing former troupe members, it shows how Tien’s epic theatre ventures a sexual critique of the body politic to bring comprador elite subjectivity and Cold War aphasia into sharp relief. Further, it shows how Tien, in his attempts to counter the violence of neocolonial modernity, reinvents the popular within the Chinese cultural tradition to engage questions of desire and the AIDS stigma. Tien’s aesthetic experimentations, this essay argues, work through the limitations of identity politics as they gesture toward an alternative ethic of inclusive living, one that is premised on, first and foremost, self-critique. Insistent on the question of decolonization, Tien leaves behind him a powerful spiritual legacy that has profound implications for rethinking the queer and the political in neoliberal times.

Keywords: Tien Chi-yuan, Little Theatre, Cold War Division, HIV/AIDS, gender/sexuality, queer, decolonization

 

【研究紀要】

歐洲產業遺址再造下的勞動文化資產保存:以芬蘭坦佩雷市為例 /鄭怡雯(109 107.4 117-145

歐洲在1960年代起拉開了後工業社會的序幕,往後的數十年間產業外移持續發生。伴隨著一波波的關廠風潮,在這些過往的工業城市土地上,取而代之的是一個又一個產業遺址的浮現,如何在這些產業遺址上進行空間再造,成了城市治理的新鬥爭場域。在這個背景下, 倡議打造見證該地勞動歷史和階級文化的勞工博物館運動,從上世紀七○年代開始在歐洲興起。這波浪潮後續在全球化城市治理的「文化轉向」下,進入了另一個發展的階段,一家家勞工博物館從上世紀八○年代陸續成立。本文以芬蘭的老工業城坦佩雷市為主要個案,透過實地訪談和文獻資料整理,來分析該市是如何將產業遺址改造成勞工博物館,以推動勞動文化資產的保存與發展,並進而探討在城市文化治理和右翼政治勢力的衝擊下,勞工博物館經營所面臨的挑戰與因應之道。

關鍵詞:勞動文化資產、產業遺產、都市社會運動、文化轉向、勞工博物館

After the shift to a post-industrial society in the 1960s, more and more industrial heritage sites in place of closed/relocated factories appeared in Europe. In this context, how to reuse the left industrial sites turned into another battlefield of urban governance. Against the backdrop, the campaign for building labour museums to preserve working-class culture and historical memories emerged in the 1970s and turned out to be another type of urban social movement. Under the “cultural turn” since the 1980s, the movement entered a new stage and thus several labour museums have been formally established. Taking Tampere, the old industrial city in Finland, as a case study, this article demonstrates how the city reconstructed the industrial heritage sites to promote the preservation of labour culture assets during the past decades. The ways the labor museum has responded to the challenges under current political climate is also discussed through interviews and document analysis.

Keywords: labour culture assets, industrial heritage, urban social movement, cultural turn, labour museum

 

【問題與討論】

內在於歷史-現實脈絡與生機的人文學/余暘(109 107.4 147-172

 

【訪談與口述史】

往事並不如煙:汪立峽訪談(109 106.12 183-205

 

【左異聲響】

找一條照顧的路回到原鄉

編按:福利殖民的複製抑或解殖返鄉的起點? /王增勇(109 107.4 173-177

滾動倒退的原鄉長照政策 /張竣傑(109 107.4 179-186

從地方看滾動式修正的長照2.0政策及跨部門整合 /蘇建仁(109 107.4 187-197

台灣原住民族長期照顧政策中的文化安全議題 UminItei(日宏煜)(109 107.4 199-214

原住民族長照機構面臨的建物與土地問題根源:以蘭嶼居家護理所為例 /林嘉男(109 107.4 215-232

原鄉組織參與長照2.0的困境 /吳雅雯(109 107.4 233-241

原鄉長照的瓶頸與突破之道 /王增勇、Ciwang TeyraUminItei (日宏煜)(109 107.4 243-254

綜合討論(109 107.4 255-268