《台灣社會研究季刊》 第112期:

【一般論文】

從歷史制度主義分析台灣集體勞動體制的再生產與變遷:以不當勞動行為裁決制度及雇主支配介入案件為例/林倩如112 108.4 1-48

這篇論文主要從長時間的歷史角度分析單一廠場工會制度如何同時再生產與轉變。首先,這篇論文根據James Mahoney的制度再生產機制理論,分析單一廠場工會制度透過《工會法》的修法過程不斷地自我增強,並且成為工會組織中最重要、也是最基本的組織。再來,這篇論文根據Mahoney 和Kathleen Thelen制度變遷模型和制度具有權力分配的特性,分析國家在2011年新增不當勞動行為裁決機制後,企業工會與產業和職業工會在行使團結權和協商權是否受到相同的保障,並發現,人力資源部門的管理者仍可利用裁決委員會對工會成員可以透過跨階級合作而共同尋求員工最大利益的詮釋,以及《工會法》第14條對雇主概念的模糊定義,成功地建立另類工會。第三,這篇論文分析職業工會如何在不當勞動行為裁決制度之外,爭取與資方協商的權利。最後,這篇論文試圖對既有路徑依賴理論進行反思與補充。

關鍵詞:歷史制度主義、路徑依賴理論、單一廠場工會制度、不當勞動行為裁決制度、集體勞動體制

This article analyzes the reproduction and the transformation of Taiwan’s single trade union from the path dependence in historical institutionalism analysis. First, based on James Mahoney’s institutional reproduction theory, this article argues that the single trade union regime is reproduced through the amendments of the Labor Union Act and thus plays an important role in the labor organizations. Second, this article examines whether the corporate unions, industrial unions and professional unions are afforded the same protection regarding unfair labor practices, according to Mahoney and Kathleen Thelen’s institutional change models and the institution as the distributional instruments. However, the human resource managers take advantage of the unfair labor practice committee on the cross-class cooperation between employees and managers and, moreover, the ambiguity on the Article 14 of the Labor Union Act to develop a new corporate union. Third, this paper examines how a professional union establishes collective bargaining power outside the unfair labor practice proceedings. Finally, based on these findings, this article tries to supplement and to revise the path dependence theory.
Keywords: historical institutionalism, path dependence theory, the single trade union, unfair labor practices, collective labor regimes

誰是局內人?從傳統領域到政治領域,一種治理性的可能/施聖文112 108.4 49-98

本文主要是從現今傳統領域推動的困境中,回問歷史過程中是哪些因素造成今日的問題。分析發現,不同時期的各種運動抗爭架構出國家與原住民族之間的複雜關係,同時藉由各種治理技術達成一種實踐合理性。為了維持此一合理性,並合乎某種經濟的學說或計算,及行政系統的治理性格,佈置了政治領域的「局」。這個「局」把「傳統領域」讓渡到現代國家主權的架構中,也逐漸將原本保持抵抗的人納入局內。這個納入的過程就是將傳統領域逐漸轉成政治領域的過程,使得傳統領域的概念逐步成為一種政治領域的聲稱,呈現出一種現代國家治理性的可能。

本文主要藉由歷史社會學的比較方法,比較1980年代「還我土地運動」中的土地論述,以及「傳統領域」從研究調查到立法劃設的過程。兩個運動訴求的歸還土地,無意間都與保留地私有化的「我」結合。在各種行政部門進行的增/劃編保留地作業中,傳統領域的意義呈現出一種「被發明的傳統」,並在經歷各種運動與抗爭之後,以一種定置的劃界模式不斷地位移。當「還我土地」到「傳統領域」的過程中聲稱維繫傳統之際,仍置入了現代土地私有的模式,偷渡了私有化的概念,並與其合流而合理化地說服自己。

關鍵詞:傳統領域、政治領域、治理性、歷史社會學、原住民運動、私有化

This paper mainly focuses on the predicament of the promotion of the “traditional territory” recently, and inquires what are the factors that caused present problems in the historical processes. The analysis finds that the complex relationship between the state and the aborigines were constructed in every social movement in different periods. A variety of governance techniques were used to achieve a practical rationality. In order to maintain the rationality, it is required to conform to certain economic doctrines, calculations, and the governance character of the administrative system, and to set up a “game” in the political domain. This “game” also means that the “traditional territory” has become a claim of the political rights in the framework of modern national sovereignty, and the people who originally maintained resistance have gradually been incorporated in the game. This process of incorporation has been transforming the traditional territory into a political domain, and making the concept of the traditional territory gradually become a political claim, and therefore the modern state governmentality can be realized.

This paper compares the discourse of the “traditional territory” with the Aboriginal Land Movement in the 1980s by applying the comparative method of historical sociology. The appeals of giving back the land in the two movements coincidentally both included an “I”, which is the subject of the privatization of the reserve. In the administrative processes of re-investigating and re-mapping the “traditional territory” by the concerned government departments, the meaning of the “traditional territory” appears as an “invented tradition”. Practices in various social movements of the aboriginal, with a fixed demarcation model of locating, has also moved to different positions and roles. When it is claimed to maintain the tradition in the Aboriginal Land Movement and the traditional territory, preservation of tradition is still embedded in the logic of the land privatization. The land privatization has displaced the meaning of tradition as the rationality of the traditional territory.

Keywords: traditional territory, political domain, governmentality, historical sociology, aboriginal movements, privatization

「不男不女」:台灣「長髮」男性的治理及其性別政治,1960s-1970s/王秀雲112 108.4 99-146

1960-1970年代期間,台灣政府根據《違警罰法》大規模取締「長髮」男性(又稱「不男不女」),社會各界對於長髮與取締也議論紛紛。本文以機關檔案、公文、報章報導、雜誌書籍,及「長髮」男性的口述史訪談為材料,探討這段歷史的身體治理及其性別政治。本文有三個主要發現。其一,《違警罰法》與善良風俗論述(身體儀容的性別規範)的歷史皆可以追溯至20世紀初期的中國,可知「奇裝異服」的儀容治理有其歷史的延續性。但有別於民國初年的治理對象以婦女為主,1960、1970年代台灣則以男性為治理的主要對象,及較少數的女性迷你裙取締。其二,將1960年代台灣的治理與當時全球各地的治理比較,除善良風俗之外,台灣的反共、「西洋歪風」襲擊及復興中華文化的論述顯示出此身體治理的冷戰特色與地理政治。最後,長髮男性並無意圖成為「不男不女」,而是反抗制式化的身體規範,如此的自我表達與身體自主的維護是一種陽剛特質的展現。基於此段歷史的複雜性,本文主張不能僅以戒嚴體制來解釋此段歷史,並說明這類身體治理顯示了性別政治與國家文化政治的互相滲透。

關鍵詞:長髮男性、不男不女、陽剛特質、1960-1970年代台灣、奇裝異服

In the period between the late sixties and mid-seventies, the government of Taiwan undertook broad-scale action to police young men who were thought to have grown their hair too long. Situating such regulation of the masculine body in the context of Cold War gender politics, social transformation, and the history of Taiwan’s particular hair rules, this paper examines the ways in which long-haired men were understood as a sign of the country’s crisis articulated in terms of Western and communist corrupting influences. I argue that this history is gendered at various levels, including the appropriation and reinvention of the term “bu nan bu nu” (neither man nor woman) to describe such a supposed foreign corruption of “authentic” Chinese culture, and which implied that men were not supposed to distinguish themselves by adopting an unconventional hair style. Even though ‘long-haired’ men did not intend to adopt women’s hair style, they did resist the rigidly imposed regulations of body appearance. It was through this resistance and the claiming of the freedom to one’s own body expression that men worked against the limitations that were imposed upon them. The case of long-haired men was not merely an example of how the martial law system restricted freedom of expression; it was also a case in which the regulations of gendered body appearance intertwined with both the state and cultural politics.

Keywords: gender politics, long-hair men, masculinities, Taiwan in the sixties and seventies, outlandishly dressed

 

【研究紀要】

建制民族誌「為何」書寫?探索建制民族誌的系譜、方法特質與挑戰/齊偉先112 108.4 147-170

本文試圖從經驗研究操作的角度爬梳建制民族誌的特色,並說明建制民族誌的可能限制。首先,從理論系譜的角度切入,揭示建制民族誌在發展系譜上所傳承的內涵,說明它如何傳承及調整馬克思理論傳統、俗民方法學以及傅柯的論述理論。同時從研究對象設定及方法特質,說明建制民族誌這研究取徑的特色。接著本文從經驗研究的實際操作面切入,指出台灣相關經驗研究所透露出的建制民族誌的可能限制。具體指出在反抗議題和文化議題上,現有的建制民族誌研究並未能對此有所回應,藉此說明運用建制民族制所可能面臨的限制與挑戰。

關鍵詞:建制民族誌、支配關係、文本中介、斷裂、女性主義

This article sets up to capture the analytical features of institutional ethnography (IE), while illustrating the potential conceptual limitations encountered. First, I begin with the theoretical tracing of IE and its conceptual roots/routes, including how IE works with and against Marxist tradition, ethnomethodology and Foucauldian discourse. Meanwhile, I characterize the methodology of IE by explaining how and what IE is implemented. Next, I culturally contextualize IE and its practices within the Taiwanese context and show the potential methodological challenges encountered. In particular, I argue that the notion of resistance and the concept of culture are undertheocratized in the analytical landscape of IE and needs to be better accommodated. This shows the methodological limitations and challenges while practicing institutional ethnography.

Keywords: institutional ethnography, ruling relations, textually mediated, disjuncture, feminism

 

【問題與討論】

《人文知識思想再出發》新書討論

編按/陳信行112 108.4 171-179

人文性與中國社會主義的理想:《人文知識思想再出發》讀後/黃琪椿112 108.4 181-195

海峽封斷中的閱讀與互讀:思考「當代中國問題」的「台灣缺位」問題張立本(112 108.4 197-217

在解放與再囚禁間:中國社會轉型與人文知識思想變遷的幾點印象/觀察黃文倩(112 108.4 219-226

在台灣,何以從他者之身再出發?/朱凌毅(112 108.4 227-233

邁向歷史-社會-文化-心理的人文療癒/王東美(112 108.4 235-260

從藍綠意識形態到「跟著心走」:台灣研究的人文知識思想再出發/姜亞築(112 108.4 261-276

從人出發,從社會出發,從深入彼此的苦惱出發:台灣研究場域需要的「人文知識思想再出發」/李娜(112 108.4 277-296

 

【書介與評論】

往東向南:「中國傳播政治經濟學」芻議吳暢暢112 108.4 297-317